Pharmax Ultra EPA/DHA 90 caps

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Pharmax Ultra EPA/DHA- 90 caps

Suggested Retail: $39.15

  • • 395 mg EPA and 265 mg DHA per serving size
  • • Helps support cognitive health and/or brain function(1)
  • • Helps maintain/support cardiovascular health(2)
  • • Helps to reduce serum triglycerides/triacylglycerols(3)
  • • Sourced from sardine and anchovy
  • • Reconstituted triglyceride oil
  • • Convenient capsule format
  • • Capsules reduce repeat, increases patient compliance

Additional product info:
Fish oils may improve cardiovascular health by altering lipid metabolism, inducing haemodynamic changes, decreasing arrhythmias, modulating platelet function, improving endothelial function and inhibiting inflammatory pathways (2). Fish oil is recognized by the NHPD of Health Canada to help support and maintain cardiovascular health and to help reduce serum triglycerides/triacylglycerols (3). Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 22:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) are the 2 principal omega-3 fatty acids in marine oils. Recent data from human studies showed that these 2 fatty acids have differential effects on serum lipids and lipoproteins, serum glucose (4 grams EPA), blood pressure (4 grams DHA), heart rate (4 grams DHA) and endothelial function (4). EPA and DHA alter membrane fluidity, interact with transcription factors such as PPAR and sterol regulatory element binding protein, and are substrates for enzymes including cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase and cytochrome P450 (5). Studies also show that EPA and DHA (1.6-2.0 grams EPA and 0.9-1.2 grams DHA) found in fish oils generate bioactive lipid mediators that reduce inflammation and polymorphonuclear leukocyte recruitment in numerous inflammatory disease models (6),(7) . The independent effects of EPA and DHA are however poorly understood. While both EPA and DHA decrease TAG levels, only DHA appears to increase HDL and LDL particle size. Evidence to date also suggests that 2.8-4.0 grams DHA is more efficient in decreasing blood pressure, heart rate and platelet aggregation compared to EPA (8). Thus, reduction of postprandial triacylglycerol (TG) concentration may be cardioprotective. Studies have shown that chronic omega-3 fatty acid supplementation (4 grams of either EPA or DHA) significantly lowers postprandial TG concentrations regardless of the type of fat in test meal (10).

EPA and DHA are also crucial to brain development and normal brain functioning. DHA is particularly important to brain functioning due to its influence on neural membrane properties, which modulate cell signalling. DHA concentration in the brain decreases with age in humans and this has been postulated to be consequential to the age-related deterioration in central nervous system functions (11). As such, fish oil supplementation supports the development of the brain, eyes and nerves in children up to 12 years of age and helps support cognitive health and brain function (12).

References:
2 Cottin SC, Sanders TA, Hall WL. The differential effects of EPA and DHA on cardiovascular risk factors. Proc Nutr Soc. 2011 May;70(2):215-31. Abstract; Page 225, Conclusion
3 NHPD Monograph on Fish Oil. March 2009.
4 Woodman RJ, Mori TA, Burke V, Puddey IB, Watts GF, Beilin LJ.Effects of purified eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoicacids on glycemic control, blood pressure, and serum lipids in type 2 diabetic patients with treated hypertension.Am J ClinNutr. 2002 Nov;76(5):1007-15. Page 1007, Introduction
5 Cottin SC, Sanders TA, Hall WL. The differential effects of EPA and DHA on cardiovascular risk factors. ProcNutr Soc. 2011 May;70(2):215-31. Abstract; Page 225, Conclusion
6 McDaniel, J.C., Massey, K. and Nicolaou, A. Fish oil supplementation alters levels of lipid mediators of inflammation in microenvironment of acute human wounds.Wound Repair Regen. 2011 Mar-Apr;19(2):189-200. Page 189, Abstract & Introduction
7 van der Meij, B.S., Langius, J.A., Smit, E.F., Spreeuwenberg, M.D., von Blomberg, B.M., Heijboer, A.C., Paul, M.A. and van Leeuwen, P.A. Oral nutritional supplements containing (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids affect the nutritional status of patients with stage III non-small cell lung cancer during multimodality treatment . J Nutr. 2010 Oct;140(10):1774-80. Page 1775, 2nd paragraph
8 Cottin SC, Sanders TA, Hall WL. The differential effects of EPA and DHA on cardiovascular risk factors. Proc Nutr Soc. 2011 May;70(2):215-31. Abstract; Page 225, Conclusion
10 Park, Y. and Harris, W.S. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation accelerates chylomicron triglyceride clearance.J Lipid Res. 2003 Mar;44(3):455-63. Page 455, Introduction
11 Danthiir V, Burns NR, Nettelbeck T, Wilson C, Wittert G. The Older People, Omega-3, and Cognitive Health (EPOCH) trial design and methodology: A randomised, double-blind, controlled trial investigating the effect of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids on cognitive ageing and wellbeing in cognitively healthy older adults. Nutr J. 2011 Oct 20;10(1):117. Page 2, Background, 2nd paragraph
12 NHPD Monograph on Fish Oil. March 2009.

Other ingredients: Essential oil of orange, natural mixed tocopherols; Capsule: Fish gelatin, glycerol

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