Genestra Formula OSG- 90 tablets

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Genestra Formula OSG- 90 tablets

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• Calcium, Magnesium, Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Vitamin D and other nutrients in tablets
• Helps in the development and maintenance of bones and teeth, helps in tissue and connective tissue formation, helps maintain eyesight, skin, membranes and immune function and helps to maintain proper muscle function (1)
• Easy-to-use
• One daily tablet with a meal increase patient compliance

Formula OSG provides a unique combination of non-animal calcium along with magnesium and synergistic nutrients, specifically formulated to help in development and maintenance of night vision, bones, cartilage, teeth and gums; helps the body to metabolize carbohydrates, fats and proteins and helps in the absorption and use of calcium and phosphorus; helps in wound healing and helps in tissue and connective tissue formation; helps to maintain eyesight, skin, membranes, immune and proper muscle function; helps to prevent vitamin C and manganese deficiencies. Calcium intake, when combined with sufficient vitamin D, a healthy diet, and regular exercise, may reduce the risk of developing osteoporosis. An antioxidant for the maintenance of good health (2).

References:
1 NHPD Monograph on Multi-Vitamin and Mineral. October 2007.
2 NHPD Monograph on Multi-Vitamin and Mineral. October 2007.

Additional product info:
Calcium and vitamin D are both essential for the development and maintenance of skeletal health. Calcium plays a vital role in neuromuscular function, many enzyme-mediated processes, blood clotting and in providing rigidity to the skeleton by virtue of its phosphate salts. Over 99% of the body’s calcium is stored in the bone, where, apart from providing mechanical strength, it serves as a mineral reservoir that can be drawn upon to maintain normal plasma calcium. Vitamin D is required to maintain normal blood levels of calcium and phosphate, which are in turn needed for the normal mineralization of bone, muscle contraction, nerve conduction and the general cellular functioning of all body cells. Vitamin D, derived from both endogenous (skin) and exogenous (diet) sources, is converted into 25OHD in the liver and then into 1,25(OH)2D in the kidneys. The latter metabolite controls calcium absorption. However, plasma 25OHD closely reflects vitamin D nutritional status, and because it is the substrate for the renal enzyme that produces 1,25(OH)2D, it could have mainly an indirect and also a direct effect on calcium absorption. A vitamin D shortage would reduce the intestinal absorption of calcium, which could worsen if the diet is deficient of this element. Osteoporosis and its clinical consequence, fragility fractures, are now recognized as major public health problems. Bone mass declines and the risk of fractures increases as people age, especially postmenopausal women. An adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D, including supplementation, has been advocated as a universal primary intervention in the prevention and treatment of high-risk patients. Evidence shows that there is still a high proportion of people with inappropriately low calcium and vitamin D intake and serum levels. For selective groups of people, such as the elderly (frequently older than 70 years), those with low solar exposure and in generally poor or inadequate nutritional condition, guaranteeing a daily intake of at least 1 g of calcium and 700–800 IU of vitamin D with supplements would have beneficial effects on bone health. In those individuals with a high risk of osteoporotic fracture, calcium and vitamin D supplements are necessary but frequently insufficient (1) . The Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) clinical trial randomly assigned 36,282 post-menopausal women to receive 1000 mg of elemental calcium as calcium carbonate with 400 IU of vitamin D3 daily or placebo for an average follow-up period of 7.0 years. Significantly higher hip bone density but a non-significant reduction (12 percent) in the rate of hip fracture among those assigned to calcium with vitamin D were observed (2) . A recent review discusses vitamin D status and supplementation when treating patients with osteoporosis in relation to risks and prevention of falls and fractures. The authors conclude that poor vitamin D status and low calcium intake are important determinates for osteoporosis and fracture risk. Based on evidence from literature, adequate supplementation with at least 700 IU of vitamin D, preferably cholecalciferol, is required for improving physical function and prevention of falls and fractures. Additional calcium supplementation may be considered when dietary calcium intake is below 700 mg/day, with a supplementation dose that leads to a maximum total daily calcium intake of 1000 to 1200 mg (3) .

Calcium Aspartate is a bio-available soluble complex of Calcium l-Aspartic acid which is one of the source material of calcium in Genestra Brands TM Formula OSG. Calcium Aspartate has been used as a source of calcium in an open-label, calcium-controlled study to evaluate the effect of alfacalcidol on bone turnover in elderly women with osteoporosis. A total of 80 patients were divided into two groups: the control group, in which patients were given calcium aspartate at a dose of 78 mg/day and alfacalcidol group in which patients were given alfacalcidol 1 mcg/day together with the same dose of calcium aspartate for 6 months. The evaluation of calcium metabolism before and after the administration of calcium or alfacalcidol plus calcium and serum levels of calcium were measured in both groups. Bone resorption markers in control groups were maintained at the baseline value, whereas these values decreased in alfacalcidol group by 15% (4) . A multicenter, double-placebo, double-blind study to verify the effects of calcium aspartate anhydrous on osteoporosis was performed on a total of 1,306 patients. Group I receives CaAA (4 grams per day, 520 mg elemental) and a placebo matching Vitamin D. Group II receives calcium citrate (1,500 mg elemental per day) and Vitamin D (1,000 IU per day). Group III was given one placebo matching calcium, and another placebo matching Vitamin D. The intervention duration was for 12 months. Calcium aspartate increases bone mineral density significantly in 3-12 months (5) .
Vitamin D has complex effects on pulmonary cell biology and immunity with impact on inflammation, host defense, wound healing, repair, and other processes. While the knowledge on direct mechanistic links between Vitamin D and lung diseases is limited, a number of epidemiological and experimental are available that highlight the relevance of this connection (6) . A placebo-controlled, double-blinded study involving 164 young Finnish men provides some evidence for a preventive effect of daily supplementation with 400 IU of vitamin D for 6 months against respiratory tract infection (7) .

Magnesium (Mg) is the second most abundant intracellular cation in vertebrates. Mg ion is a critical cofactor in more than 300 enzymatic reactions involving energy metabolism, and protein and nucleic acid synthesis. Accordingly, Mg is essential for various normal tissue and organ functions. The primary source of Mg in humans is from the diets. The dietary Mg ion is absorbed in the intestine through both active and passive transport systems. Excessive Mg is rapidly excreted into the urine. During Mg deprivation, the kidney avidly conserves Mg and excretes virtually no Mg in the urine. Approximately half of the total Mg in the body of a normal adult human is present intracellularly in soft tissues, and the other half is found in bone, either as exchangeable, surface-bound, divalent cations, which may serve as a reservoir for maintaining normal extracellular Mg level, or as an integral component of the hydroxyapatite lattice in bone matrix, which may be released during bone resorption. Thus, in addition to the intestine and kidney, the bone is involved in Mg homeostasis. Past studies with Mg depletion in both humans and animals indicate that Mg may have key regulatory roles in bone and mineral metabolism. A study examined the effects of daily oral magnesium (Mg) supplementation on bone turnover in 12 young (27–36 yr old) healthy men. The study group received orally, for 30 days, 15 mmol Mg (Magnosolv powder, Asta Medica, containing 670 mg magnesium carbonate precipitate (equivalent to 169 mg Mg) and 342 mg magnesium oxide (equivalent to 196 mg)) daily in the early afternoon with 2-h fasting before and after Mg intake. Mg supplementation reduced levels of both serum bone formation and resorption biochemical markers after 1–5 days, consistent with the premise that Mg supplementation may have a suppressive effect on bone turnover rate. The study concludes that oral Mg supplementation may suppress bone turnover in young adults. Because increased bone turnover has been implicated as a significant etiological factor for bone loss, these findings raise the interesting possibility that oral Mg supplementation may have beneficial effects in reducing bone loss associated with high bone turnover, such as age-related osteoporosis (8) . In another study, twenty postmenopausal women have been divided into two groups. Ten patients were given magnesium citrate (1,830 mg/day providing 205 mg elemental magnesium) orally for 30 days. Ten postmenopausal women of matching age, menopause duration, and BMI were recruited as the control group and followed without any medication. Thirty consecutive days of oral magnesium supplementation caused significantly decrease in serum iPTH levels in the Mg-supplemented group. Serum osteocalcin levels were significantly increased and urinary deoxypyridinoline levels were decreased in the Mg-supplemented group. This study has demonstrated that oral magnesium supplementation in postmenopausal osteoporotic women suppresses bone turnover (9) .

Over the last several decades, vitamin A has been used in the treatment of various skin disorders. An investigation was conducted to determine whether vitamin A (retinyl palmitate) supplementation at 25,000, 50,000, or 75,000 IU against a placebo significantly increases circulating RA concentrations of all-trans-, 9-cis-, and 13-cis-RA. The results of the study suggests that supplementation with retinyl palmitate is an effective means to increase circulating all-trans, 9-cis-, and 13-cis-RA concentrations among humans (10) . Another study showed that retinol palmitate at 10,000 IU by mouth for 90 days significantly reduced rectal symptoms of radiation proctopathy, perhaps because of wound-healing effects (11) .

Bone matrix contains over 90% of protein as collagen and it is well established that vitamin C is an essential cofactor for collagen formation and synthesis of hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine required for the formation of stable triple helixes. Furthermore, animal studies have demonstrated that experimental deficiency of vitamin C leads to impaired bone mass, cartilage, and connective tissue. Several epidemiologic studies have examined the association of vitamin C in relation to bone mineral density (BMD). A study evaluated the associations of total, supplemental, and dietary vitamin C intake with bone mineral density (BMD) at the hip [femoral neck, trochanter], spine, and radial shaft and 4-y BMD change in elderly participants from the Framingham Osteoporosis Study. Among 334 men and 540 women, the authors observed an unexpected negative cross-sectional association of total vitamin C and supplemental vitamin C intake with trochanter BMD among men who were current smokers. In contrast, dietary vitamin C appeared to be protective against 4-y losses in BMD among men, whereas total vitamin C appeared to be protective only among men with low calcium or vitamin E intakes. These results suggest a possible protective role of vitamin C for bone health in older men (12) . Daily vitamin C supplement intake ranging from 100 to 5,000 mg appears to have a beneficial effect on levels of BMD, especially among postmenopausal women using concurrent estrogen therapy and calcium supplements (13) .

References:
1 Díaz-López B, Cannata-Andía JB. Supplementation of vitamin D and calcium: advantages and risks. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2006 Sep;21(9):2375-7. Page 2375, Introduction, 1st, 3rd and 4th paragraphs; Page 2376, last 2 paragraphs
2 Jackson RD, LaCroix AZ, Gass M, Wallace RB, Robbins J, Lewis CE, Bassford T, Beresford SA, Black HR, Blanchette P, Bonds DE, Brunner RL, Brzyski RG, Caan B, Cauley JA, Chlebowski RT, Cummings SR, Granek I, Hays J, Heiss G, Hendrix SL, Howard BV, Hsia J, Hubbell FA, Johnson KC, Judd H, Kotchen JM, Kuller LH, Langer RD, Lasser NL, Limacher MC, Ludlam S, Manson JE, Margolis KL, McGowan J, Ockene JK, O'Sullivan MJ, Phillips L, Prentice RL, Sarto GE, Stefanick ML, Van Horn L, Wactawski-Wende J, Whitlock E, Anderson GL, Assaf AR, Barad D; Women's Health Initiative Investigators. Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of fractures. N Engl J Med. 2006 Feb 16;354(7):669-83. Page 669, Abstract; Page 680, Discussion, last paragraph; Page 680, Conclusion
3 van den Bergh JP, Bours SP, van Geel TA, Geusens PP. Optimal use of vitamin D when treating osteoporosis. Curr Osteoporos Rep. 2011 Mar;9(1):36-42. Page 36, Abstract; Page 40, Conclusion
4 Shiraki M, Fukuchi M, Kiriyama T, Okamoto S, Ueno T, Sakamoto H, Nagai T. Alfacalcidol reduces accelerated bone turnover in elderly women with osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Metab. 2004;22(4):352-9. Abstract + Seroyal Research Document
5 Tang, JF, Liu, H, Wang, Q, et al. Effects of Calcium Aspartate Anhydrous on Treatment of Osteoporosis. Abstract; Study Design; Conclusion
6 Herr C, Greulich T, Koczulla RA, Meyer S, Zakharkina T, Branscheidt M, Eschmann R, Bals R. The role of vitamin D in pulmonary disease: COPD, asthma, infection, and cancer. Respir Res. 2011 Mar 18;12:31. Page 4, 2nd paragraph
7 Laaksi I, Ruohola JP, Mattila V, Auvinen A, Ylikomi T, Pihlajamäki H. Vitamin D supplementation for the prevention of acute respiratory tract infection: a randomized, double-blinded trial among young Finnish men. J Infect Dis. 2010 Sep 1;202(5):809-14. Page 810, Subjects and Methods, 1st paragraph; Page 811, Discussion, 1st paragraph; Page 813, Conclusion
8 Dimai HP, Porta S, Wirnsberger G, Lindschinger M, Pamperl I, Dobnig H, Wilders-Truschnig M, Lau KH. Daily oral magnesium supplementation suppresses bone turnover in young adult males. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998 Aug;83(8):2742-8. Abstract; Page 2742, Introduction; Page 2743, 1st paragraph on the right side; Page 2748, Conclusion
9 Aydin H, Deyneli O, Yavuz D, Gözü H, Mutlu N, Kaygusuz I, Akalin S. Short-term oral magnesium supplementation suppresses bone turnover in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2010 Feb;133(2):136-43. Abstract
10 Sedjo RL, Ranger-Moore J, Foote J, Craft NE, Alberts DS, Xu MJ, Giuliano AR. Circulating endogenous retinoic acid concentrations among participants enrolled in a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial of retinyl palmitate. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2004 Nov;13(11 Pt 1):1687-92. Abstract; Page 1687, Introduction, 1st & 2nd paragraphs; Page 1691, Conclusion
11 Ehrenpreis ED, Jani A, Levitsky J, Ahn J, Hong J. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of retinol palmitate (vitamin A) for symptomatic chronic radiation proctopathy. Dis Colon Rectum. 2005 Jan;48(1):1-8. Abstract
12 Sahni S, Hannan MT, Gagnon D, Blumberg J, Cupples LA, Kiel DP, Tucker KL. High vitamin C intake is associated with lower 4-year bone loss in elderly men. J Nutr. 2008 Oct;138(10):1931-8.
13 Morton DJ, Barrett-Connor EL, Schneider DL. Vitamin C supplement use and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. J Bone Miner Res. 2001 Jan;16(1):135-40. Abstract

Other ingredients: Microcrystalline cellulose, silica, croscarmellose sodium, magnesium stearate, shellac

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