Genestra Chromium CWS 0.5 fl oz (15 ml)
Genestra Chromium CWS- 0.5 fl oz (15 ml)
• Chromium formula • Provides support for healthy glucose metabolism (1) • Helps the body to metabolize carbohydrates and fats (2) • Helps to prevent chromium deficiency (3) • Ideal for vegans • Convenient Cold Water Soluable (CWS) liquid format
References: 1 NHPD Monograph on Chromium (from non-picolinate sources). December 2009. 2 NHPD Monograph on Chromium (from non-picolinate sources). December 2009.
Additional product info: Chromium (Cr) is an essential element required for normal carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Signs of Cr deficiency have been documented on numerous occasions, including elevated blood glucose, insulin, cholesterol and triglycerides, and decreased high density lipoproteins (HDL) in humans consuming normal diets. A review reports that the response to Cr supplementation for glucose, insulin, lipids, and related variables is related to the amount and form of supplemental Cr, the degree of glucose intolerance, and the duration of the study. Subjects with glucose intolerance but not diabetes usually respond to 200 µg of Cr daily as Cr chloride or other more bioavailable forms of Cr (3).
Impaired glucose tolerance results from Cr restriction in animals, and Cr supplementation improves glucose tolerance in diabetic animals. These effects are presumably due to the role of Cr in glucose tolerance factor (GTF), a complex of Cr and nicotinic acid believed to facilitate insulin binding. Humans, however, do not uniformly respond to Cr supplementation. A study was designed to evaluate the possibility that the failure results from inadequate levels of dietary nicotinic acid to serve as substrate for GTF synthesis. Sixteen healthy elderly volunteers were divided into three groups and given either 200 micrograms Cr, 100 mg nicotinic acid, or 200 micrograms Cr + 100 mg nicotinic acid daily for 28 days and evaluated on days 0 and 28. Fasting glucose and glucose tolerance were unaffected by either chromium or nicotinic acid alone. In contrast, the combined chromium-nicotinic acid supplement caused a 15% decrease in a glucose area integrated total and a 7% decrease in fasting glucose. Thus, these data suggest that the inability to respond to chromium supplementation may result from suboptimal levels of dietary nicotinic acid (4). Another study evaluated the effect of chromium supplementation, versus placebo, on insulin levels and serum lipids in a double-blind, randomized trial in 26 young adults (mean age 36 years). Fasting levels of glucose, immunoreactive insulin (IRI), and lipids (total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides) were measured before and after 90 days of daily supplementation with a chromium (III)-nicotinate preparation, containing 220 micrograms elemental chromium, or placebo. Those individuals within the chromium group with initial fasting IRI levels greater than 35 pmol/l had a significant decrease in IRI level after supplementation despite no significant changes in serum lipids. These subjects may benefit from chromium supplementation by improving insulin sensitivity and cardiovascular risk over time (5). The NHPD recommendations for chromium supplementation in adults to provide support for healthy glucose metabolism are between 2.2-500 µg per day (6).
A pilot study was designed to determine whether 600 micrograms niacin-bound chromium ingested daily over 2 months by African-American women undergoing a modest dietary and exercise regimen influences weight loss and body composition. Twenty overweight African-American women, engaged in a modest diet-exercise regimen, participated in the randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study. They received placebo three times a day (t.i.d.) during the control period and niacin-bound chromium, 200 micrograms t.i.d., during the verum period. Niacin-bound chromium given to modestly dieting-exercising African-American women caused a significant loss of fat and sparing of muscle compared to placebo. Once chromium was given at these dose levels, there was a 'carry-over' effect (7).
References: 3 Anderson RA. Chromium, glucose intolerance and diabetes. J Am Coll Nutr. 1998 Dec;17(6):548-55. 4 Urberg M, Zemel MB. Evidence for synergism between chromium and nicotinic acid in the control of glucose tolerance in elderly humans. Metabolism. 1987 Sep;36(9):896-9. 5 Wilson BE, Gondy A. Effects of chromium supplementation on fasting insulin levels and lipid parameters in healthy, non-obese young subjects. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 1995 Jun;28(3):179-84. 6 NHPD Monograph on Chromium (from non-picolinate sources). December 2009. 7 Crawford V, Scheckenbach R, Preuss HG. Effects of niacin-bound chromium supplementation on body composition in overweight African-American women. Diabetes Obes Metab. 1999 Nov;1(6):331-7.
Other ingredients: Purified water, citric acid